Where it all started?
Whats the impact?
- Low velocity (large mass) - 10 m/s (22 mph)
- Intermediate velocity - 10 - 50 m/s (22-111 mph)
- High/ballistic velocity (small mass) - 50 - 1000 m/s (111-2230 mph)
- Hyper velocity impact - 2000 - 5000 m/s (5000 - 11100 mph)
In this blog, we will take a look at high velocity impact.
Not so fast!
- Cone formation on the back face of the target,
- Tensile failure of primary yarns,
- Deformation of secondary yarns,
- Matrix cracking,
- Shear plugging
- Friction during penetration.
In other words, the root cause of strength and damage is at a scale that is very difficult to represent within a standard Computer Aided Design (CAD) Model.
MultiMechanics’ breakthrough two-way coupled multi-scale technology was developed for these very reasons. Using our tools, engineers are able to quickly and accurately relate material micro-structural details to overall structural performance and part service-life.
This is a simplified example, but is nonetheless and interesting mix of local and global phenomena. As discussed, the ability to accurately predict these interactions has vast implications for transportation both on and off this planet.
As Elon Musk (founder/CEO of Tesla and SpaceX said): "I would like to die on Mars, just not on impact"
To see more examples such as these, please check out are latest series on Balistic Impact on Composites, sponsored by Altair.
Bonus Fact: Hyper Velocity Impact
Hyper velocity impact involves projectiles moving at extremely high velocities such that the local target materials behave like fluids and the stress induced by the impact is many times the material strength.
If a spacecraft collides with an object with a relative velocity exceeding the speed of sound in solid material (this is about 4-5 kilometers per second), then this is known as a ‘hypervelocity impact’ (HVI). Impacts from man-made debris and from natural meteoroids are very similar, apart from their speeds. Typical impact velocities encountered by orbiting spacecraft are 10 kilometers per second for space debris and 20 kilometers per second for meteoroids.